Calculator - 计算器

1 + 2 + 3 = 6

这是一个计算器应用程序,你可以在这里下载这个例子


简介

这里的计算器是用响应式编程写的,而且它还用到了 RxFeedback 架构。接下来我们就来介绍一下这个应用程序是如何实现的。


整体结构

class CalculatorViewController: ViewController {

    @IBOutlet weak var lastSignLabel: UILabel!
    @IBOutlet weak var resultLabel: UILabel!

    @IBOutlet weak var allClearButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var changeSignButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var percentButton: UIButton!

    @IBOutlet weak var divideButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var multiplyButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var minusButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var plusButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var equalButton: UIButton!

    @IBOutlet weak var dotButton: UIButton!

    @IBOutlet weak var zeroButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var oneButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var twoButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var threeButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var fourButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var fiveButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var sixButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var sevenButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var eightButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var nineButton: UIButton!

    override func viewDidLoad() {
        let commands: Observable<CalculatorCommand> = Observable.merge([
            allClearButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .clear },

            changeSignButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .changeSign },
            percentButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .percent },

            divideButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .operation(.division) },
            multiplyButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .operation(.multiplication) },
            minusButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .operation(.subtraction) },
            plusButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .operation(.addition) },

            equalButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .equal },

            dotButton.rx.tap.map { _ in  .addDot },

            zeroButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("0") },
            oneButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("1") },
            twoButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("2") },
            threeButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("3") },
            fourButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("4") },
            fiveButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("5") },
            sixButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("6") },
            sevenButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("7") },
            eightButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("8") },
            nineButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("9") }
        ])

        let system = Observable.system(
            CalculatorState.initial,
            accumulator: CalculatorState.reduce,
            scheduler: MainScheduler.instance,
            feedback: { _ in commands }
        )
            .debug("calculator state")
            .share(replay: 1)

        system.map { $0.screen }
            .bind(to: resultLabel.rx.text)
            .disposed(by: disposeBag)

        system.map { $0.sign }
            .bind(to: lastSignLabel.rx.text)
            .disposed(by: disposeBag)
    }

    func formatResult(_ result: String) -> String {
        if result.hasSuffix(".0") {
            return result.substring(to: result.index(result.endIndex, offsetBy: -2))
        } else {
            return result
        }
    }
}

首先合成出一个命令序列,它是通过按钮点击转换过来的:

let commands: Observable<CalculatorCommand> = Observable.merge([
    allClearButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .clear },

    changeSignButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .changeSign },
    percentButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .percent },

    divideButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .operation(.division) },
    multiplyButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .operation(.multiplication) },
    minusButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .operation(.subtraction) },
    plusButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .operation(.addition) },

    equalButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .equal },

    dotButton.rx.tap.map { _ in  .addDot },

    zeroButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("0") },
    oneButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("1") },
    twoButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("2") },
    threeButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("3") },
    fourButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("4") },
    fiveButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("5") },
    sixButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("6") },
    sevenButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("7") },
    eightButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("8") },
    nineButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("9") }
])

通过使用 map 方法将按钮点击事件转换为对应的命令。如:将 allClearButton 点击事件转换为清除命令,将 plusButton 点击事件转换为相加命令,将 oneButton 点击事件转换为添加数字1命令。最后使用 merge 操作符将这些命令合并。于是就得到了我们所需要的命令序列

几乎每个页面都是有状态的。我们通过命令序列来对状态进行修改,然后产生一个新的状态。例如,刚进页面后,点击了按钮 1 。那么初始状态为 0,在执行添加数字1命令后,状态就更新为 1。通过这种变换方式,就可以生成一个状态序列

let system = Observable.system(
    CalculatorState.initial,
    accumulator: CalculatorState.reduce,
    scheduler: MainScheduler.instance,
    feedback: { _ in commands }
)
    .debug("calculator state")
    .share(replay: 1)

命令序列触发,对页面状态进行更新,在用更新后的状态组成一个序列。这就是我们所需要的状态序列。接下来我们用这个状态序列来控制页面显示:

system.map { $0.screen }
    .bind(to: resultLabel.rx.text)
    .disposed(by: disposeBag)

system.map { $0.sign }
    .bind(to: lastSignLabel.rx.text)
    .disposed(by: disposeBag)

state.screen 来控制 resultLabel 的显示内容。用 state.sign 来控制 lastSignLabel 的显示内容。


Calculator

控制器主要负责数据绑定,而整个计算器的大脑Calculator.swift 文件内。

State:

这个页面主要有三种状态:

enum CalculatorState {
    case oneOperand(screen: String)
    case oneOperandAndOperator(operand: Double, operator: Operator)
    case twoOperandsAndOperator(operand: Double, operator: Operator, screen: String)
}
  • oneOperand 一个操作数,例如:进入页面后,输入 1 时的状态
  • oneOperandAndOperator 一个操作数和一个运算符,例如:进入页面后,输入 1 + 时的状态
  • twoOperandsAndOperator 两个操作数和一个运算符,例如:进入页面后,输入 1 + 2 时的状态

Command:

这个计算器提供七种命令:

enum Operator {
    case addition
    case subtraction
    case multiplication
    case division
}

enum CalculatorCommand {
    case clear
    case changeSign
    case percent
    case operation(Operator)
    case equal
    case addNumber(Character)
    case addDot
}
  • clear 清除,重置
  • changeSign 改变正负号
  • percent 百分比
  • operation 四则运算
  • equal 等于
  • addNumber 输入数字
  • addDot 输入 “.”

reduce:

当命令产生时,将它应用到当前状态上,然后生成新的状态:

extension CalculatorState {
    static func reduce(state: CalculatorState, _ x: CalculatorCommand) -> CalculatorState {
        switch x {
        case .clear:
            return CalculatorState.initial
        case .addNumber(let c):
            return state.mapScreen { $0 == "0" ? String(c) : $0 + String(c) }
        case .addDot:
            return state.mapScreen { $0.range(of: ".") == nil ? $0 + "." : $0 }
        case .changeSign:
            return state.mapScreen { "\(-(Double($0) ?? 0.0))" }
        case .percent:
            return state.mapScreen { "\((Double($0) ?? 0.0) / 100.0)" }
        case .operation(let o):
            switch state {
            case let .oneOperand(screen):
                return .oneOperandAndOperator(operand: screen.doubleValue, operator: o)
            case let .oneOperandAndOperator(operand, _):
                return .oneOperandAndOperator(operand: operand, operator: o)
            case let .twoOperandsAndOperator(operand, oldOperator, screen):
                return .twoOperandsAndOperator(operand: oldOperator.perform(operand, screen.doubleValue), operator: o, screen: "0")
            }
        case .equal:
            switch state {
            case let .twoOperandsAndOperator(operand, operat, screen):
                let result = operat.perform(operand, screen.doubleValue)
                return .oneOperand(screen: String(result))
            default:
                return state
            }
        }
    }
}
  • clear 重置当前状态
  • addNumber, addDot, changeSign, percent 只需要更改屏显即可
  • operation 需要根据当前状态来确定如何变化状态。
    • 如果只有一个操作数,就添加操作符。
    • 如果有一个操作数和操作符,就替换操作符。
    • 如果有两个操作数和一个操作符,将他们的计算结果作为操作数保留,然后加入新的操作符,以及一个操作数 0.
  • equal 如果当前有两个操作数和一个操作符,将他们的计算结果作为操作数保留。否则什么都不做。

剩下的都是一些辅助代码,接下来我们再来看下全部代码:

ViewController:

class CalculatorViewController: ViewController {

    @IBOutlet weak var lastSignLabel: UILabel!
    @IBOutlet weak var resultLabel: UILabel!

    @IBOutlet weak var allClearButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var changeSignButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var percentButton: UIButton!

    @IBOutlet weak var divideButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var multiplyButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var minusButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var plusButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var equalButton: UIButton!

    @IBOutlet weak var dotButton: UIButton!

    @IBOutlet weak var zeroButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var oneButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var twoButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var threeButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var fourButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var fiveButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var sixButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var sevenButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var eightButton: UIButton!
    @IBOutlet weak var nineButton: UIButton!

    override func viewDidLoad() {
        let commands: Observable<CalculatorCommand> = Observable.merge([
            allClearButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .clear },

            changeSignButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .changeSign },
            percentButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .percent },

            divideButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .operation(.division) },
            multiplyButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .operation(.multiplication) },
            minusButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .operation(.subtraction) },
            plusButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .operation(.addition) },

            equalButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .equal },

            dotButton.rx.tap.map { _ in  .addDot },

            zeroButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("0") },
            oneButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("1") },
            twoButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("2") },
            threeButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("3") },
            fourButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("4") },
            fiveButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("5") },
            sixButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("6") },
            sevenButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("7") },
            eightButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("8") },
            nineButton.rx.tap.map { _ in .addNumber("9") }
        ])

        let system = Observable.system(
            CalculatorState.initial,
            accumulator: CalculatorState.reduce,
            scheduler: MainScheduler.instance,
            feedback: { _ in commands }
        )
            .debug("calculator state")
            .share(replay: 1)

        system.map { $0.screen }
            .bind(to: resultLabel.rx.text)
            .disposed(by: disposeBag)

        system.map { $0.sign }
            .bind(to: lastSignLabel.rx.text)
            .disposed(by: disposeBag)
    }

    func formatResult(_ result: String) -> String {
        if result.hasSuffix(".0") {
            return result.substring(to: result.index(result.endIndex, offsetBy: -2))
        } else {
            return result
        }
    }
}

Calculator:

enum Operator {
    case addition
    case subtraction
    case multiplication
    case division
}

enum CalculatorCommand {
    case clear
    case changeSign
    case percent
    case operation(Operator)
    case equal
    case addNumber(Character)
    case addDot
}

enum CalculatorState {
    case oneOperand(screen: String)
    case oneOperandAndOperator(operand: Double, operator: Operator)
    case twoOperandsAndOperator(operand: Double, operator: Operator, screen: String)
}

extension CalculatorState {
    static let initial = CalculatorState.oneOperand(screen: "0")

    func mapScreen(transform: (String) -> String) -> CalculatorState {
        switch self {
        case let .oneOperand(screen):
            return .oneOperand(screen: transform(screen))
        case let .oneOperandAndOperator(operand, operat):
            return .twoOperandsAndOperator(operand: operand, operator: operat, screen: transform("0"))
        case let .twoOperandsAndOperator(operand, operat, screen):
            return .twoOperandsAndOperator(operand: operand, operator: operat, screen: transform(screen))
        }
    }

    var screen: String {
        switch self {
        case let .oneOperand(screen):
            return screen
        case .oneOperandAndOperator:
            return "0"
        case let .twoOperandsAndOperator(_, _, screen):
            return screen
        }
    }

    var sign: String {
        switch self {
        case .oneOperand:
            return ""
        case let .oneOperandAndOperator(_, o):
            return o.sign
        case let .twoOperandsAndOperator(_, o, _):
            return o.sign
        }
    }
}


extension CalculatorState {
    static func reduce(state: CalculatorState, _ x: CalculatorCommand) -> CalculatorState {
        switch x {
        case .clear:
            return CalculatorState.initial
        case .addNumber(let c):
            return state.mapScreen { $0 == "0" ? String(c) : $0 + String(c) }
        case .addDot:
            return state.mapScreen { $0.range(of: ".") == nil ? $0 + "." : $0 }
        case .changeSign:
            return state.mapScreen { "\(-(Double($0) ?? 0.0))" }
        case .percent:
            return state.mapScreen { "\((Double($0) ?? 0.0) / 100.0)" }
        case .operation(let o):
            switch state {
            case let .oneOperand(screen):
                return .oneOperandAndOperator(operand: screen.doubleValue, operator: o)
            case let .oneOperandAndOperator(operand, _):
                return .oneOperandAndOperator(operand: operand, operator: o)
            case let .twoOperandsAndOperator(operand, oldOperator, screen):
                return .twoOperandsAndOperator(operand: oldOperator.perform(operand, screen.doubleValue), operator: o, screen: "0")
            }
        case .equal:
            switch state {
            case let .twoOperandsAndOperator(operand, operat, screen):
                let result = operat.perform(operand, screen.doubleValue)
                return .oneOperand(screen: String(result))
            default:
                return state
            }
        }
    }
}

extension Operator {
    var sign: String {
        switch self {
        case .addition:         return "+"
        case .subtraction:      return "-"
        case .multiplication:   return "×"
        case .division:         return "/"
        }
    }

    var perform: (Double, Double) -> Double {
        switch self {
        case .addition:         return (+)
        case .subtraction:      return (-)
        case .multiplication:   return (*)
        case .division:         return (/)
        }
    }
}

private extension String {
    var doubleValue: Double {
        guard let double = Double(self) else {
           return Double.infinity
        }
        return double
    }
}

参考

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